ID Keys
*Images in development

Rock and wood borers

Shell with accessory dorsal plates, ligament supported by an internal apophysis
Go to #2
Shell lacking accessory dorsal plates, if apophysis present then animals worm-like
Go to #10
Anterior of valves entire, radially ribbed, wide pedal gape lacking, [in soft rocks]
Barnea candida
Anterior of valves with a wide pedal gape, may be closed by a smooth callum in adults
Go to #3
With a callum
Go to #4
Without a callum
Go to #6
With a siphonoplax, mesoplax of 2 small triangular pieces [in soft rocks]
Pholadidea loscombiana
Without a siphonoplax, mesoplax large, subcircular [in wood]
Go to #5
Mesoplax with irregular furrows and wrinkles
Martesia striata
Mesoplax with commarginal sculpture
Martesia fragilis
Sculptural change between radial on an anterior and commarginal on posterior abrupt, divided by a radial groove
Go to #7
Sculptural change gradual, no radial groove present
Go to #9
Mesoplax large, subcircular [in wood] = Martesia juveniles
Go to #5
Mesoplax small, triangular in 2 pieces
Go to #8
Thin papery shells, not gaping posteriorly. Juveniles of...
Pholadidea loscombiana
Robust shells with a wide pedal and siphonal gape
Zirfaea crispata
Umbonal reflection septate, protoplax, mesoplax and metaplax present
Pholas dactylus
Umbonal reflection not septate, only protoplax present
Barnea parva
Shell not gaping anteriorly, with cardinal teeth
Petricolaria pholadiformis
Shell gaping anteriorly or ventrally
Go to #11
Shell gaping anteriorly, lacking cardinal teeth (in wood)
Go to #12
Shell gaping ventrally, lacking teeth (in soft rock)
Rocellaria dubia
Shell without apophysis, small accessory plates present
Go to #13
Shell with apophysis, lacking accessory plates, animal worm-like with terminal pallets
Go to #16
Shelf species
Go to #14
Bathyal species
Go to #15
Anterior area with up to 40 oblique serrated ridges, mesoplax sharply triangular in outline
Xylophaga praestans
Anterior area with up to 50 oblique serrated ridges, mesoplax quadrant in outline
Xylophaga dorsalis
Dorsal margin of posterior area raised acute, mesoplax not calcified
Xylophaga anselli
Dorsal margin of posterior area broadly rounded, mesoplax of 2 elongate triangular plates
Xylophaga gagei
Pallets segmented and on long stalk - Bankia
Go to #17
Pallets not segmented, stalk short
Go to #19
Segments cone-shaped, cones broadly triangular with smooth margins
Bankia gouldi
Segments cone-shaped, cones tapering with serrated margins and laterally extended into long awns
Go to #18
Periostracul margin of cones narrow
Bankia bipennata
Periostracul margin of cones wide
Bankia fimbriatula
Pallet may appear segmented as it has a ribbed appearance
Go to #20
Pallet not segmented and not ribbed
Go to #22
Pallet 2-3 times long as wide, outline asymmetric, papilose calcareous encrustation
Nausitora fusticulus
Pallet broad, 1.5 times long as wide
Go to #21
Blade broadly oval, papilose encrustation distally, brown periostracum around base
Spathoteredo spatha
Blade paddle-shaped, obscurely segmented - ribbed or striated appearance
Nototeredo norvagica
Blade paddle-shaped, almost entirely calcareous, thumbnail shaped depression
Go to #23
Blade without thumbnail shaped depression and is either broadly oval or elongated and capped
Go to #25
Thumbnail shaped depression is about a quarter of the blade deep
Go to #24
Thumbnail shaped depression is over three quarters of the blade deep. Depression is transversely striated.
Teredora malleolus
Blade oval, thumbnail depression broadly rounded
Teredo navalis
Blade elongate oval, thumbnail depression acutely rounded
Psiloteredo megotara
Single oval blade on short stalk, outerface of blade radially ribbed
Uperotus lieberkindi
Blade elongate, capped
Go to #26
Calcareous basal cap with second divided cup inserted
Teredothyra excavata
Calacareous part single piece, cap straight sided, not divided
Go to #27
Cap not furrowed
Lyrodus pedicellatus