Orosius albicinctus Distant 1918b: 85Membracoidea : Cicadellidae
|Diseases Transmitted||Pathogen Type|
|Lucerne witches' broom 16Sr||Phytoplasma|
|Crops Affected by Orosius albicinctus Distant 1918b: 85|
This species is a vector of tobacco yellow dwarf virus, tomato big bud virus, lucerne witches’ broom virus, potato purple top wilt virus, legume little leaf virus in Australia, mosaic I virus, and witches’ broom virus of groundnuts in Java. Tomato big bud, lucerne witches’ broom, and potato purple top wilt diseases are believed to be caused by the same virus or different strains of the same virus. The others are a complex of different but closely related viruses.
In 1941, Hill (366) was first to report transmission of yellow dwarf of tobacco virus by this species under the name of “Thamnotettix argentata.” A total of 121 of 262 plants were infected with the virus using populations collected from diseased tobacco fields and other sources. Both nymphs and adults transmitted the virus.
Transmission of tomato big bud virus was first reported by Hill in 1943 (367). Twenty-three species of plants in 13 families were infected with the virus by means of the leafhopper. The virus occurred naturally in numerous other plants, a few of which were used as sources of inoculum in transmission tests.
Lucerne witches’ broom virus and its transmission were first reported by Helson in 1951 (348). Naturally infective leafhoppers transmitted the virus to Datura stramonium L. Helson subsequently transmitted the virus to seven species of plants after nonviruliferous leafhoppers were caged on diseased lucerne from 3 to 20 days and transferred to test plants for 14 to 96 days.
Hutton and Grylls (382) were first to report the transmission of legume little leaf virus in 1956. Laboratory-reared leafhoppers from Canberra failed to transmit the virus whereas those collected from legume plots at other stations did. The virus was transmitted to 48 of 68 plants in 10 species. Numerous other species of plants were found as natural hosts of the virus. The authors stated that potato purple top wilt virus was related to legume little leaf virus.
In 1956, Bergman (68, 69) transmitted witches’ broom of peanuts to peanuts and was first to report transmission of a new virus, mosaic I, of peanuts. The insects remained infective up to 77 days and the latent period of the virus in the insect was at least 8 days. Thung and Hadiwidjaja in 1957 (787) confirmed transmission of witches’ broom virus to groundnut by feeding nymphs for 10 days on diseased plants and 10 days on one series of healthy plants and another 10 days on a second series of healthy plants. Of 84 plants tested, 24 were infected. Most of the infections were obtained in the second series of plants tested.
This species is considered an important vector of a complex of several viruses in Australia and West Java. The relationship among these viruses is not fully understood as evidenced by the lack of information on virus-vector and virus-plant relationships.
Small, linear species. Length of male 2.90—3.00 mm., female 3.00mm.
eneral color light brown to dark brown. Crown gray to light brown, disk with brown or black spots and reticulate markings; pronotum light brown with small dark-brown reticulations; elytra light gray with numerous brown or black markings bordering cells and numerous reticulations among cells.
Pygofer in lateral aspect about as long as wide, caudal margin obliquely truncate; aedeagus in lateral aspect with pair of lateral narrow shafts extending caudad, each shaft traversed with gonoduct; gonopores subterminal; style in dorsal aspect simple, apex attenuated and slightly curved laterally; female seventh sternum in ventral aspect with caudal margin broadly convex (fig. 102).
This species is one of two in the genus Orosius that is a vector of a plant virus, and it can be separated from albicinctus by the aedeagus with shafts nearly parallel in ventral aspect. No résumés or illustrations of albicinctus are presented here owing to lack of authentically determined material.
In 1960, Linnavouri (462) transferred Orosius argentatus to the genus Nesophrosyne on the basis that the former genus was congeneric ith the latter. Later in 1960, he (463) suppressed argentatus as a synonym of N. lotophagorum (Kirkaldy) without access to type material. According to Ghauri (personal communication), who had finished a revision of Orosius at the time of this writing, argerttatus is distinct from lotophagorum and belongs in the genus Orosius.
|Nielson, M. W. 1968b. The leafhopper vectors of phytopathogenic viruses (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Taxonomy, biology and virus transmission. United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin . 1382 386 pp.|