Species Account

NMW Image No.

Paraphlepsius (Sabix) apertinus (Osborn & Lathrop 1923a: 329 )

Membracoidea : Cicadellidae
Diseases Transmitted

Distribution Map
(simplified continental distribution)
Geographical Distribution:
North America

Recorded Distribution(s):
It is known only from the Western United States and western Canada. It has been recorded from California and Oregon (DeLong and Severin 1945 [192]), Washington (Wolfe 1955 [866]), southern British Columbia, and mountain areas of Alberta (Beirne 1956 [58]). (Nielson, 1968)

Paraphlepsius (Sabix) apertinus (Osborn & Lathrop 1923a: 329 )
Diseases Transmitted Pathogen Type
Crops Affected by Paraphlepsius (Sabix) apertinus (Osborn & Lathrop 1923a: 329 )
Rice Citrus Carrot
Barley Apple Tomato
Maize (Corn) Pear Potato
Sugarcane Elm Strawberry
Wheat Palms Rubus
Sorghum Grapevine Papaya
Other (grasses/cereals) Ornamentals Peach

This species is a vector of the western strain of North American aster yellows virus. In 1945, Severin (696) was first to report transmission of this virus by producing infections from diseased celery to healthy celery plants. Insects were fed for 10 days or longer on inoculum and males transmitted the virus to 7 of 13 and females to 8 of 14 celery plants. Percent transmission ranged from 20 to 100.
(Nielson 1968)

This species is not considered an important vector in the natural spread of this virus, although it has potential importance.
(Nielson 1968)

Identification Plates
Paraphlepsius apertinus

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Plate 1
Species Description

Medium size, robust species. male 5.50—6.60 mm., female 5.50—6.80 mm.

General colour light brown to dark brown with numerous, dark, fine reticulations on body. Crown tan with reticulations; pronoturn light brown, reticulated; elytra ivory with numerous fine dark-brown or black reticulations.

Pygofer in lateral aspect about 1½ times longer than wide, caudoventral margin with distinct broad spine, curved dorsoposteriorly; aedeagus in lateral aspect broad basally, narrowed subapically, with broad spinelike processes subapically, apex curved laterally, shaft with apex sharply pointed in ventral aspect with paired lateral spines near apex; style extremely large, longer than length of pygofer; female seventh sternum in ventral aspect with caudal margin deeply and broadly excavated along middle to form two distinct lobes.

Species Diagnosis

This is the only species in the genus Paraphlepsius that is a known vector of a plant virus. It can be distinguished from other vector species by the characters in the key to the genera. The male genitalia were illustrated by DeLong and Severin in 1945 , Crowder in 1952 (149), and Beirne in 1956 . Color plates of the adults were presented by Severin in 1945.

(Nielson 1968)


Host Plant Activity Period (Months) Dormancy Generations
- -
Eggs -
Nymphs -
Adult -
One per year -
Continuous -
Variable -
Paraphlepsius (Sabix) apertinus (Osborn & Lathrop 1923a: 329 )

Higher taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Superfamily Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Hemiptera
Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha
Infraorder: Cicadamorpha
Membracoidea Cicadellidae
Subfamily: Deltocephalinae
Paraphlepsius (Sabix) apertinus (Osborn & Lathrop 1923a: 329 )
Nielson, M. W. 1968b. The leafhopper vectors of phytopathogenic viruses (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Taxonomy, biology and virus transmission. United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin . 1382 386 pp.
Record last updated - 12/09/2019