Species Account

BM(NHM).1955.378; Male; Det. Beirne; 'no loc'

BM(NHM).1988.343; Female; 'Applegate, Oregon, US'

BM(NHM).1955.378; Male; Det. Beirne; 'no loc'
NMW Image No. E000727

Graphocephala confluens (Uhler 1861b: 285)

Membracoidea : Cicadellidae
Diseases Transmitted
Western X-disease phytoplasma 16SrIII-A Phytoplasma

Distribution Map
(simplified continental distribution)
Geographical Distribution:
North America

Recorded Distribution(s):
United States, Canada

Graphocephala confluens (Uhler 1861b: 285)
Diseases Transmitted Pathogen Type
Western X-disease phytoplasma 16SrIII-A Phytoplasma
Crops Affected by Graphocephala confluens (Uhler 1861b: 285)
Rice Citrus Carrot
Barley Apple Tomato
Maize (Corn) Pear Potato
Sugarcane Elm Strawberry
Wheat Palms Rubus
Sorghum Grapevine Papaya
Other (grasses/cereals) Ornamentals Peach

This species is a vector of western X-disease virus of peach. Anthon and Wolfe (8) first reported in 1951 transmission of this virus from peach to peach by adults. Since the vector is primarily a xylem feeder and the virus is largely present in the phloem, transmission was difficult to obtain. Transmission of the virus by nymphs was negative (Wolfe 1955 [864]).
(Nielson 1968)

This species is not considered an important Vector of western X-disease virus of peach.
(Nielson 1968)

Identification Plates
Graphocephala confluens

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Plate 1
Species Description

Medium size, slightly robust species. Length of male 5.80—6.40 mm., female 6.40—6.60 mm.

General color brown. Crown light brown with dark markings; pronotum brown with dark patches posteriorly; elytra brown.

Pygofer in lateral aspect nearly twice as long as wide, caucial margin triangularly convex; aedeagus in lateral aspect with shaft short, broad, asymmetrical; aedeagal processes broad, triangulate distally; paraphyses asymmetrical; style in dorsal aspect simple, distal half elongate, curved laterally at apex; female seventh sternum in ventral aspect with caudal margin distinctly convex.

Species Diagnosis

This species is closely related to dolobrata and is difficult to separate on the basis of the male genitalia. The aedeagus of confluens in lateral aspect has a broader shaft and the apex of the style is curved laterally in dorsal aspect.

(Nielson 1968)


Host Plant Activity Period (Months) Dormancy Generations
- -
Eggs -
Nymphs -
Adult -
One per year -
Continuous -
Variable -
Graphocephala confluens (Uhler 1861b: 285)

Higher taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Superfamily Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Hemiptera
Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha
Infraorder: Cicadamorpha
Membracoidea Cicadellidae
Subfamily: Cicadellinae
Graphocephala confluens (Uhler 1861b: 285)
Nielson, M. W. 1968b. The leafhopper vectors of phytopathogenic viruses (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Taxonomy, biology and virus transmission. United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin . 1382 386 pp.
Record last updated - 22/10/2010