Scleroracus flavopictus (Ishihara 1953a: 197 )Membracoidea : Cicadellidae
|Diseases Transmitted||Pathogen Type|
|Gentian witches' broom 16SrIII-B||Phytoplasma|
|Potato purple top roll 16SrIII-B||Phytoplasma|
|Tsuwabuki witches'-broom phytoplasma 16SrIII||Phytoplasma|
|Crops Affected by Scleroracus flavopictus (Ishihara 1953a: 197 )|
This species is a vector of potato witches’ broom virus and Japanese aster yellows virus. In 1955, Fukushi et al. (301) were first to report transmission of witches’ broom virus in Japan. Leafhoppers were fed on diseased potato and red clover plants for 4 to 15 days, then transferred to healthy potato seedlings to feed from 2 to 48 days. Six of 23 potato plants were infected using diseased potato as the virus source, and 3 of 10 potato plants were likewise infected using diseased clover plants as the virus source. Natural transmission was also effected to Vicia unijuga A. Br., potato, red clover, alsike clover, and China-aster. The incubation period in the insect was not determined, but in plants it was long, ranging from 39—49 days to 98—102 days.
The transmission of Japanese aster yellows virus by this species was first reported by Fukushi and Nemoto in 1953 (298). In 1959, Yoshii (873) reported evidence that both viruses were distinct and listed additional host plants of witches’ broom virus.
This species is considered an important vector in the natural spread of these viruses in Japan.
Small, slender species. Length of male 3.60—4.00 mm., female 4.00—4.30 mm.
General color dark brown to black. Crown, and pronotum deep tan, heavily marked with black; elytra dark brown to black, veins tan.
Pygofer in lateral aspect about 11/2 times as long as wide, caudoventral margin produced posteriorly to short truncate lobe, longitudinal suture along middle of caudoventral lobe; aedeagus in lateral aspect broad basally, shaft with pair of terminal tubelike processes, attenuated apically and slightly curved laterally, small spine on each side near middle of shaft in caudoventral aspect; gonopore terminal between bases of processes; style in dorsal aspect simple, apices narrowed; female seventh sternum in ventral aspect with caudal margin broadly sinuate (fig. 85).
This species similar to vaccinii in genital characteristics can be separated by the aedeagus with a pair of long, tubular processes and a lateral spine on each side of the middle of each process. In 1953, Ishihara (385) originally described this species in the genus Omaniella, and then in 1954 he (387) transferred the species to Ophiola and synonymized Omaniella. Later he transferred it from Ophiola to Scleroracus.’ Most American and European authors consider Ophiola as a generic synonym of Scleroracus and I have elected to follow their works. Consequently, I have transferred flavopictus to Scleroracus.
|Nielson, M. W. 1968b. The leafhopper vectors of phytopathogenic viruses (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Taxonomy, biology and virus transmission. United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin . 1382 386 pp.|