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Species Account


BM(NHM).1932476; Paratype; Male; 'Sacramento, Cal. US'
E000778

USNM; Paratype; Female; 'Cala.'
E003039

BM(NHM).1932476; Paratype; Male; 'Sacramento, Cal. US'
NMW Image No. E000778

Xyphon fulgida (Nottingham 1932a: 101)

Membracoidea : Cicadellidae

Red headed Sharpshooter

Diseases Transmitted

Distribution Map
(simplified continental distribution)
Geographical Distribution:
North America

Recorded Distribution(s):
The geographical range is confined to Califor¬nia. Nottingham in 1932 (570) recorded it from Lemon Cove, Winters, Sacramento, and Spreckels. Additional localities, Russian River near Larkmead and Geyserville, Sonoma County, were added by DeLong and Severin in 1949 (197). Hewitt et al. in 1949 (359) reported it from all grape-producing areas of northern California, especially in the San Joaquin Valley and as far south as Corona in southern Cali¬fornia. (Nielson, 1968)

Xyphon fulgida (Nottingham 1932a: 101)
Diseases Transmitted Pathogen Type
Crops Affected by Xyphon fulgida (Nottingham 1932a: 101)
Rice Citrus Carrot
Barley Apple Tomato
Maize (Corn) Pear Potato
Sugarcane Elm Strawberry
Wheat Palms Rubus
Sorghum Grapevine Papaya
Other (grasses/cereals) Ornamentals Peach

This species is a vector of Pierce’s disease virus of grape in California. The first indication that this species transmitted a virus was reported by Hewitt et al. in 1942 (360) in their early studies of this disease. Later on in 1942 these workers (361) confirmed transmission and obtained positive identification of the species.
Tests on natural infectivity were undertaken on alfalfa for transmission of alfalfa dwarf virus (Hewitt et al 1946) [
362]. None of the leafhoppers carried the virus, but when they were given 24 hours’ feeding on diseased alfalfa they transmitted the virus to 19 percent of the alfalfa plants used in the test. Similar results were obtained with Pierce’s disease virus of grape. However, further studies showed that only 4 percent of the leafhoppers were naturally infected.
Intertransmission tests using alfalfa and grape as sources of inoculum and healthy test plants resulted in 59 and 42 percent transmission, respectively, from diseased grape to healthy grape and alfalfa and 71 and 61 percent transmission, respectively, from diseased alfalfa to healthy grape and alfalfa. These studies offered the first proof that alfalfa dwarf and Pierce’s disease of grape were caused by the same virus.
Houston et al. in 1947
(378) found this species to be a xylem feeder, which led Severin in 1949 (706) to study the latent period of the virus in the vector. His results showed a minimum latent period of 2 hours and a maximum of 7 hours.
Studies on the host range of the virus by Freitag in 1951
(282) showed that 75 species of plants in 23 families were experimentally infected with fulgida and 2 other species of leafhopper vectors. Thirty-six species in 23 families of plants were naturally infective including bermudagrass, the principal host of fulgida. Additional studies on natural infectivity of vectors were conducted by Freitag and Frazier in 1954 (286), who found naturally infective nymphs and adults from nearly every type of habitat, including vineyards, roadsides, ditches, irrigated pastures, and natural breeding areas. The vector carried the virus during all seasons of the year and produced 14.6-percent infection compared to an earlier report of 4 percent by Houston et al. in 1947 (378).

(Nielson 1968)

This species is considered one of the most important vectors in the natural spread of Pierce’s disease virus in California.
(Nielson 1968)

Identification Plates
Xyphon fulgida


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Plate 1
Species Description

Length:
Medium size, slender species. male 4.10—4.50 mm., female 5.10—5.70 mm.

Colour:
General color green with pronounced venation on elytra. Crown light reddish green; pronotum green; elytra green with distinct ivory or yellow veins, reticulated at apex.

Genitalia:
Pygofer in lateral aspect twice as long as wide, caudodorsal margin produced posteriorly to broadly rounded lobe, dorsal margin slightly concave; aedeagus in lateral aspect simple, attenuated distally, small tooth basally on dorsal margin, shaft platelike, narrow in ventral aspect; gonopore terminal; aedeagal processes symmetrical; style in dorsal aspect simple, sharply attenuated apically; female seventh sternum in ventral aspect with caudal margin rounded.

Species Diagnosis

From triguttata, to which it is similar, fulgida can be separated by the aedeagus with. an elongate oval-shaped shaft in ventral aspect.

(Nielson 1968)

Ecology

Host Plant Activity Period (Months) Dormancy Generations
- -
Eggs -
Nymphs -
Adult -
One per year -
Continuous -
Variable -
Xyphon fulgida (Nottingham 1932a: 101)

Higher taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Superfamily Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Hemiptera
Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha
Infraorder: Cicadamorpha
Membracoidea Cicadellidae
Subfamily: Cicadellinae
Xyphon fulgida (Nottingham 1932a: 101)
References
Nielson, M. W. 1968b. The leafhopper vectors of phytopathogenic viruses (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Taxonomy, biology and virus transmission. United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin . 1382 386 pp.
Record last updated - 12/09/2019