Aceratagallia sanguinolenta (Provancher)Membracoidea : Cicadellidae
|Diseases Transmitted||Pathogen Type|
|Crops Affected by Aceratagallia sanguinolenta (Provancher)|
This species is a vector of the New York strain of potato yellow dwarf virus in the Eastern United States. Under the name “Agallia sanguinolenta” it was the first reported vector of potato yellow dwarf by Black (74) in 1934. In this experiment the Incubation period of the virus in plants was variable but averaged about 40 days. The virus overwintered in potato tubers and in the body of the leafhopper. Black (75) confirmed transmission of the Virus and found that medium red clover was also a susceptible host. Leafhoppers were able to transmit the virus after 9 days of feeding on infective plants. Adults were viruliferous during any season of the year (Black, 76), and the species has the same geographical range as the virus. Nymphs in the second, fourth, and fifth instars were capable of transmitting potato yellow dwarf virus with a minimum incubation period of 6 days in the insect’s body (Black, 80). The virus was incapable of passing from parents to the progeny even though adults remained infective after feeding on rye for 52 days. Genetic variation in the ability of the leafhopper to transmit the virus was shown by Black (79) when, after 10 generations of breeding, he successfully isolated two races of leafhoppers, one “active” and the other “inactive.” Eighty percent of the “active” race transmitted the virus whereas only 2 percent of the “inactive” race transmitted. Hybrids between the two races were 30 percent infective. A greater percentage of males than females of the “active” race transmitted the virus. Different strains of potato yellow dwarf virus were found when Black (81) used different species of agalliine leafhoppers. A. sanguinolenta transmitted the New York strain but not the New Jersey strain or two new viruses—clover club leaf and clover big vein of crimson clover.
This species owing to its wide distribution within the geographical range of potato yellow dwarf virus is considered the most important vector of the New York strain of potato yellow dwarf virus in the United States.
Small, robust species. Length of male 2.85—3.10 mm., female 3.00—8.25 mm.
General color light to dark brown. Vertex with two distinct black spots; pronotum light brown; elytra with dark markings along commissure and veins.
Pygofer in lateral aspect slightly longer than wide, caudal margin strongly produced posteriorly at about middle to bluntly angled lobe; 10th segment with pair of broad straight spines directed posteroventrad along inside of caudal submargin of pygofer; aedeagus in lateral aspect simple, apical half of shaft narrow, tubelike, curved laterally; gonopore terminal; style in dorsal aspect with margins of distal half parallel, coarsely serrate on inner margin, apex truncate, outer apical margin produced to long distinctly pointed spine; female 7th sternum in ventral aspect with caudal margin rounded and slightly notched at middle.
This species, related to
can be distinguished by the style with the extremely long apical process, which extends laterally from the outer margin.
|Nielson, M. W. 1968b. The leafhopper vectors of phytopathogenic viruses (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Taxonomy, biology and virus transmission. United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin . 1382 386 pp.|